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What is in the Marijuana Plant and how does it effect the Human Body

(-)-trans –1(delta)- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psycho pharmacologically active component of Cannabis, followed by Cannabidiol (CBD), which exhibits an antagonistic effect on THC1 and acts physiologically as a (smooth) muscle relaxer. CBD exhibit strong anticonvulsant activity for 3 of the 4 major types of epilepsy. CBN and CBC even shows many therapeutic effects.

THC: -9 Tetrahydrocannabinol  is responsible for the analgesic and psychotropic effect of marijuana. It sharpens the mind, it makes the skin more tender (effects the vanilloid pain receptors). It ‘'uppers'' all sensory functions as sight, hearing, color sensitivity and increases, as no other drug, the sexual arousement by men and women on (all) three aspects. Cannabis affects cognition and memory, euphoria, sedation and pain (analgesic/antinociception). It inhibits vomiting at the 5-HT3A receptor level.
Effects: Pain Relief (analgesic effects, muscle relaxing, anti-epileptic, anti-emetic, anti-inflammatory, appetite stimulating, bronchio- dilating, hypotensive, anti-depressant.)

THC: -8 Tetrahydrocanabinol , is 25 % less potent than -9 THC.

CBN: Cannabinol is a breakdown product of THC; during storage (aging), CBN will slowly increase, while the THC spot will decrease (in a stoichiometric manner).. Oxygen is the most important factor.
Effects: mild psychoactive; sedative, analgesic; 3 times more than aspirin. CBN is a non-narcotic type analgesic like aspirin.

THV : Resembles THC in all effects it provokes. The effects are of lower strength due to a shorter carbon side chain of 3 carbon (propyl side chain) atoms instead of 5 carbon atoms (pentyl side chain) in THC.
Effects: See THC. All panels favorite cannabis varieties contains always THV (reinforces the effect of THV? By penetrating more into the CB receptors?)

CBG : Cannabigerol is the first cannabinoid produced in the plant. It is the biogenetic precursor of all the other cannabinoids. It is produced mainly in branch and stem like structures of the plant. CBG is not excreted in the oil drop (resin) on the (stalked) glandular trichome (see fig 1). CBG displays on tlc-plate as a bright yellow spot, It will induce drowsiness and it makes ( in a dosage related manner) one sleepy. The fingerprint will show large quantities of CBG in hashish and a lot of more cannabinoids compared to marijuana varieties. 
Effects: Sedative effects and antimicrobial properties, lowering intra-ocular pressure.

CBD
: Cannabidiol is formed from cannabigerol. Cannabielson (cannabielsoin)
Effects: CBD is a THC antagonist; that means it reduces (lessens) the psychoactive effect of THC. CBD balancing of THC's psychoactive effect may be one reason many patients prefer marijuana to Marinol®. CBD acts like THC as an neuroprotective antioxidant.

It has recently been demonstrated that CBD also stimulates vanilloid VR1 pain receptors, inhibits uptake of the anandamide, and weakly inhibits its breakdown. These new findings have important implications in elucidating the pain-relieving, anti-inflammatory, and immunodulatory effects of CBD. CBD reduces muscle spasm.
Goal: Today state-off-the-art sophisticated cultivation processes are available to ensure harvesting high quality plant material highly consistent in their well defined cannabinoid ratios (less than 3.5% S.D.)

CBC : Cannabichromene is always present in all samples tests. For instance, in our laboratory on the International Highlife Hemp-fair Utrecht (The Netherlands) no sample is found without a CBC spot. The CBC spot will appear on top of the plate (no active groups on the molecule and for this reason the most soluble one in the developing fluid.).
Effects: promotes the effect of THC and has sedative and analgesic effects.

To explore the many therapeutic Fingerprint- Effect relationships of well defined different chemotypes1 with defined cannabinoid ratios, for many different patient-groups, its imperative to retain & sustain the existing varieties and explore their genetic potential.

Goal: Today state-off-the-art sophisticated cultivation processes are available to ensure harvesting high quality plant material highly consistent in their well defined cannabinoid ratios (less than 3.5% S.D.)

Therefore: All the different effects of the fingerprint-effect relationships due to the presence of the individual cannabinoids (and their complicated and not yet understood, combinatorial interactions), originally present in a range of well defined varieties or chemotypes must be documented first before a pharmaceutical company will develop a cannabinoid-based medicine.

18 varieties characterized by their chemical content. In our case this will be the cannabinoids (cannabinols). In 1992, scientists discovered that the human brain is flooded with naturally-occurring cannabinoids, which they called ‘'anandamide'' from the Sanskrit word ‘'ananda'' meaning ‘'internal bliss''.  Latching on receptor sites all over the brain, anandamide play key roles in keeping us healthy, happy, and free of pain. Because of the fact that THC and other cannabinoids has only affinity to the anandamide receptor sites on cells, cannabinoids will therefore induce the same physiological responses as anandamides do. While cannabinoids are common in human and animal nervous and immune systems, marijuana is the only plant known to contain them. A second endo-cannabinoid has been recently discovered and isolated. The compound that latches on this receptor (CB2) is 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG).

CB1 receptors are the predominant brain cannabinoid receptor, located in various parts of neurons in the brain; testis, endothelial cells, and ileum longitudinal smooth muscles1.

CB2 receptors are found peripherally in gut epithelia , and in many immune cell subsets such as macrophages1 (very important in our immune system, macrophages excrete bradykine, a small protein that signal a SOS-response, through the blood stream to the brain and tells it to ‘'realize'' ‘'pain''. Macrophages excrete also many immuno modulators). CB2 receptors are also found on the cells of monocytes in the spleen and are also found on the surface of leukocytes. All these cells are part of our immune or defense system and are mediators in killing bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and cancer-cells in our body; it keeps us healthy. T and B lymphocytes, NK-cells (neutral killer cells) and granulocytes, key members of our immune system, display high CB2- receptor densities on their cell surface.. Receptors are even found on dopamine regulated neurons (sensing pleasure).This is the reason why a sense of ‘'well being'', mainly induced by THC (and anandamide), will overcome someone who's using a Cannabis drug variety high in THC.


Cannabinoids are immuno- modulators

Because of the complex working behavior of the cannabinoids, many more receptors might be expected to be found.
The cannabinoids of Cannabis and the endo-cannabinoids (anandamide & 2 AG) shows both the same affinity to the CB1 and CB2 receptors. The ‘'principle of proof'' whether cannabinoids can be beneficial for many ailments, will now be evident. Also evident now is why marijuana works like an anandamide. A simple deduction can be made: The body will recognize the cannabinoids as ‘'self'', synthetic drugs with no natural receptors, will not be recognized by the body as ‘'non-self''. Self means ‘'natural'' therefore no side effects and no addictive reactions can be expected. Non-self means for the body cells; ‘''get rid of this compound, break it down and shuffle it out”

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